Publications in Conceptualizing and Developing Boundaries

Gerten, D., Hoff, H., Rockström, J., Jägermeyr, J., Kummu, M., & Pastor, A. V. (2013). Towards a revised planetary boundary for consumptive freshwater use: role of environmental flow requirements. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5(6), 551-558.

Dearing, J. A., R. Wang, K. Zhang, J. G. Dyke, H. Haberl, M. S. Hossain, P. G. Langdon, T. M. Lenton, K. Raworth, S. Brown, J. Carstensen, M. J. Cole, S. E. Cornell, T. P. Dawson, C. P. Doncaster, F. Eigenbrod, M. Flörke, E. Jeffers, A. W. Mackay, B. Nykvist & Poppy, G. M. (2014). Safe and just operating spaces for regional social-ecological systems. Global Environmental Change, 28, 227-238.

Gerten, D., Rockström, J., Heinke, J., Steffen, W., Richardson, K., Cornell, S. 2015. Response to Comment on "Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet". Science 348, 1217.

Heitzig, J., T. Kittel, J.F. Donges, & Molkenthin, N. (2016). Topology of sustainable management of dynamical systems with desirable states: from defining planetary boundaries to safe operating spaces in the Earth System. Earth System Dynamics 7, 21-50.


Publications in Navigating Pathways within Earth's Operating Space

Van Vuuren, D.P., Kok, M.T.J., Lucas, P.L., Prins, A.G., Alkemade, R., van den Berg, M., Bouwman, A.F., van der Esch, S., Jeuken, M., Kram, T., Stehfest, E. (2015). Pathways to achieve a set of ambitious global sustainability objectives by 2050. Explorations using the IMAGE integrated assessment model. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 98: 303-323.

Van Vuuren, D.P., Stehfest, E., Gernaat, D., Van den Berg, M., Harmsen, M., De Boer, H.-S., Bouwman, A., Daioglou, V., Edelenbosch, O., Girod, B., Kram, T., Lassaletta, L., Lucas, P.L., Van Meijl, H., Muller, C., Van Ruijven, B. and Van der Sluis, S. (2016). Energy, land-use and greenhouse gas emissions trajectories under a green growth paradigm. Global Environmental Change: in press, online first.

Heck, V., Donges, J. F. and Lucht, W. (2016). Collateral transgression of planetary boundaries due to climate engineering by terrestrial carbon dioxide removal. Earth System Dynamics, in press, discussion paper: Earth System Dynamics Discussions (2016),


Publications in Operationalizing Boundaries

Häyhä T., Lucas P., van Vuuren D.P., Cornell S.E., Hoff H. (2016): From Planetary Boundaries to national fair shares of the global safe operating space – How can the scales be bridged?,  Global Environmental Change 40: 60–72.

Hoff H., Lucht W., Kahlenborn W., Keppner B. (2015): Anschlußfähigkeit der Planetary N-Boundary für eine integrierte Stickstoffstrategie in Deutschland, UBA

Hoff H., Nykvist B., Carson M. (2014): Living well, within the limits of our planet? Measuring Europe's growing external footprint, Stockholm Environment Institute, Working Paper

Lucas, P.L., Ludwig, K., Kok, M.T.J., Kruitwagen, S. (2016). Sustainable Development Goals in the Netherlands: Building blocks for environmental policy for 2030. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency: The Hague, the Netherlands.



General: Planetary Boundary Framework

Johan Rockström: Let the environment guide our development


See video with lead author Johan Rockström, introducing the planetary boundaries framework.



Read the full scientific article here (Rockström et al., Nature, 2009)

Download supplementary informationPDF (pdf, 425.1 kB)

Read Nature feature article and special Planetary Boundaries section

Read the update article of 2015 here (Steffen et al., Science, 2015)

Further resources on planetary boundaries research can be found here: